Diesel Swap laws in Texas - Ford Bronco Forum
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post #1 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-08-2016, 10:26 PM Thread Starter
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Diesel Swap laws in Texas

Hey, does anyone know about the legality of swapping in a diesel engine in Texas? I've read several different pages from TX DMV and it seems like any new engine can be swapped in as long as it maintains some version of original equipment.

What I think this means is, If I had an air pump in the original engine, whatever engine I put in needs to have an air pump.

However, because my truck is over 25 years it's exempt from emissions testing here in Texas.

So...does this mean I don't need to worry about the legalities of swapping in some kind of diesel engine? I haven't decided on what kind of new engine but I'm fairly certain it will be a diesel.

Anyone know anything?

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post #2 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-09-2016, 04:51 AM
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It's technically illegal in all 50 states - there are Federal laws against it.

You may not swap in a diesel engine into any vehicle that was not offered in a diesel version when it was new. Even if the diesel would produce fewer emissions products than the engine it replaces. Sentence is max 10 years, $100K max per instance.

As a practical matter, as the EPA guy told me a decade or so back when I was investigating the legality of a diesel swap in my then-Jeep, the EPA isn't going to be running around inspecting cars and they didn't at the time have armed police (the last bit has changed, they have armed cops with high caliber crew served guns now, per their recent RFBs) so unless you were going to get caught by the state at inspection time, they weren't going to be terribly concerned. So, yeah, technically while it is illegal, since Texas isn't going to have an inspector caring about what's under the hood any more you could go ahead and do it - most Texas cops won't know the difference at all or want to be bothered with it. You can drive it all around the state with a reasonable assumption your truck will be left alone.

*HOWEVER.*

You basically will never be able to take your truck into Federal property 'safely.' This means no military bases, no national parks, no Federal reservations (and I'm not talking about the Indian rez kind.). Any place where there's a chance your vehicle will be inspected for security reasons by Feds is a chance you will be busted and your truck will be confiscated - the same for any vehicles operating without cats (in violation of Federal law), etc. Yes, Fed cops and park rangers do look for this sort of thing now. This means (especially) that you cannot drive it into Big Bend National Park. Yes, vehicles *have* been seized and owners charged.

Should your truck be seized but you somehow avoid getting charged, be advised that the Feds may not give your truck back but may instead crush it. That's what happened to these Land Rover Defender diesels that were imported as being gasoline trucks when they were actually diesels. No chance to repair or correct the problem was given, no parts could be saved, they were just crushed.


That is an official "look at what we did!" video released by US CBP and the EPA.

Short version:
State doesn't care if the truck is out of emissions inspection.
Feds don't care unless the vehicle comes in contact with Federal property or Federal cops. Then they care a *lot*.

I'm not going to tell you not to do it. I'm just going to tell you that it's illegal and that there can be some very real, very significant downsides to it.
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post #3 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-09-2016, 12:48 PM
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post #4 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-09-2016, 01:52 PM Thread Starter
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Originally Posted by Spktyr View Post

Short version:
State doesn't care if the truck is out of emissions inspection.
Feds don't care unless the vehicle comes in contact with Federal property or Federal cops. Then they care a *lot*.

I'm not going to tell you not to do it. I'm just going to tell you that it's illegal and that there can be some very real, very significant downsides to it.
Damn...that's disappointing. Also, what a waste! However, I would think that the Rover was crushed for a title issue becuase it was not imported with proper documentation for its engine.

In any case. I don't trust the stock 302 that's in there now. So I want to put something more reliable and more fuel efficient in it. If I were to chose something like a PSD would that be legal since it was offered as an option on that frame style?

The reason this has me concerned now is because I wanted to build this up as a road trip truck for seeing the freakin' national parks!

So is it that all engine swaps are federally illigal or just undocumented ones? Because if I can get the swap legally documented then wouldn't that be okay?

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post #5 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-09-2016, 04:01 PM
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Maybe start with a diesel truck, shorten the frame, and put the Bronco tub on it...
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post #6 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-09-2016, 04:45 PM
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maybe you need a 300ci 6-cyl?

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post #7 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-10-2016, 12:15 AM
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Damn...that's disappointing. Also, what a waste! However, I would think that the Rover was crushed for a title issue becuase it was not imported with proper documentation for its engine.
They have been crushed even with proper documentation. The diesel engine in the LR does not meet US standards and is flatly illegal.

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In any case. I don't trust the stock 302 that's in there now. So I want to put something more reliable and more fuel efficient in it. If I were to chose something like a PSD would that be legal since it was offered as an option on that frame style?
No, the type certificates for the FSB are separate and the FSB was never offered in the US as a diesel. Even if you were to say the FSB was basically a Ford truck, the truck it is closest to is the F-150 - which was never offered with a diesel in the US and therefore is illegal to swap a diesel into. The only way to legally have a Bronco with a diesel is, as someone else suggested:

Quote:
Originally Posted by Sloride75 View Post
Maybe start with a diesel truck, shorten the frame, and put the Bronco tub on it...
That's literally the only way - and the vehicle would have to legally be registered as the F-250/350/450 that the frame came from. The 150 is legally classed as a passenger vehicle or car for purposes of emissions, the 250 and up are classed with medium and heavy trucks and could have diesels. The emissions regs for passenger cars are so strict that basically only a tiny fraction of diesel engines could ever meet the regs so most companies didn't bother.

Quote:
So is it that all engine swaps are federally illigal or just undocumented ones? Because if I can get the swap legally documented then wouldn't that be okay?
*All* diesel engine swaps into gasoline vehicles are illegal in the US unless the gasoline vehicle was also sold in the US in an emissions-legal, government approved diesel version. There is no question of documentation or not, it's just flat illegal.

You can, however, put any gasoline drivetrain of the same year or newer into your Bronco provided you leave the pollution controls intact. This is fully legal and the EPA encourages it to some degree. You can *not* legally put in an older engine than the year of the car, so no sticking a 429 Cobra Jet engine in.

You may want to consider installing, say, a rebuilt Explorer's 5.0 V8 - or as a couple people have done at quite some expense, the new 5.0 32V Coyote V8.
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post #8 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-10-2016, 01:02 AM
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So my SN95 injected E85 alcohol burning 650 HP FE is not legal, I guess I won't tell them then cause they can't sniff E85 and all the emissions will be intact.
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post #9 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-10-2016, 03:08 AM
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So my SN95 injected E85 alcohol burning 650 HP FE is not legal, I guess I won't tell them then cause they can't sniff E85 and all the emissions will be intact.
The E85 conversion, unless performed by an EPA approved converter holding a type certificate for that specific conversion (down to year, make, model, engine model, etc), is illegal. See what the EPA says about it here: https://iaspub.epa.gov/otaqpub/displ...d=23319&flag=1

Putting the FE engine (which exited production long before your Bronco was made) into your Bronco is also illegal and should there be a situation where they're doing an indepth inspection they will quickly find out by checking the block numbers against the VIN.

E85, contrary to popular belief, is easily detected by drive-by photospectrometers. Burning E85 produces a *lot* of acetaldehyde which gasoline engines don't produce in any significant amount. As the government itself had to point out:

Quote:
Tailpipe emissions result from fuel combustion in a vehicle's engine. Emissions of primary concern include hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and CO2. Numerous studies have compared the emissions of E85 and gasoline. E85 decreases the emissions of CO2, as well as the emissions of many harmful toxics, such as benzene—a known carcinogen. However, it increases acetaldehyde emissions, which the National Institute of Health describes as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" and is moderately reactive for ground level ozone formation.
The E85 CO2 emissions, by the way, are actually *increased* at the tailpipe over a gas engine in some cases, but the government says this about how they calculate net CO2 emissions:

Quote:
Carbon dioxide (CO2) released when ethanol is used in vehicles is offset by the CO2 captured when crops used to make the ethanol are grown. As a result, FFVs running on ethanol produce less net CO2 than conventional vehicles per mile traveled.
Photospectrometer checkpoints have been popping up all over the US - including, yes, in Texas.



This is what the machines used to look like - they required a white monitoring van containing hardware to sit with the sensors and process the data they captured.



Now they look like this - two little boxes, no support van.



And not all the installations are temporary or marked by safety cones, let alone an Emissions Monitor warning sign.
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post #10 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-11-2016, 12:40 AM Thread Starter
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That's so messed up! So basically all those awesome and potentially better Diesel engine swaps that I see written up everywhere are completely illegal? Wtf?
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post #11 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-11-2016, 03:04 AM
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Yup. Welcome to the modern post-EPA world.

That said... you are aware that a PSD 7.3L actually makes comparable torque to some of the gas motors running around these days while weighing a LOT more and having less horsepower, right?

The PSD 7.3L in my 1995 made 210hp and 425lb-ft. The 5.0L Coyote crate engine makes 412hp and 390lb-ft while the EcoBoost 3.5L makes 365hp and 420lb-ft. The EcoBoost's torque peak is comparable to the diesel's too - 2000 vs 2500.
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post #12 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-11-2016, 08:08 AM
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I was serious about the 300. Those can be made to get really good mileage, they were available in your year bronco, they're plenty powerful, and highly reliable by all accounts I've seen.

Ecoboost /any other direct injection makes great numbers. And that's all fun and games until you have to pull the intake manifold and clean your intake valves because the carbon buildup has started clogging air flow, slowly robbing all your power.

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post #13 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-11-2016, 09:46 AM Thread Starter
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Originally Posted by dash_cam View Post
I was serious about the 300. Those can be made to get really good mileage, they were available in your year bronco, they're plenty powerful, and highly reliable by all accounts I've seen.
The more I look into it the more I'm leaning towards an "Upgrade" to the 300. They seem to be cheap, dead nuts reliable and for what I want to do, completely perfect.

Good fuel economy (better than the 302)
Reliable (See timing gears)
Good low end torque (great for towing a small trailer down a dirt road)
Legal to swap

Quote:
Originally Posted by Spktyr View Post
Yup. Welcome to the modern post-EPA world.

That said... you are aware that a PSD 7.3L actually makes comparable torque to some of the gas motors running around these days while weighing a LOT more and having less horsepower, right?

The PSD 7.3L in my 1995 made 210hp and 425lb-ft. The 5.0L Coyote crate engine makes 412hp and 390lb-ft while the EcoBoost 3.5L makes 365hp and 420lb-ft. The EcoBoost's torque peak is comparable to the diesel's too - 2000 vs 2500.
I am aware that the 7.3 isn't as good as an option that it once was. I was trying to stay away from something that large and heavy to begin with. However the biggest issues I'm trying to combat is complexity of a field fix. I used to work on turbo'd Subarus a lot when I was younger so i'm not too afraid of fuel injection. That being said, eco-boosts cost as much as a new truck just for the engine and the same can be said for the coyote 5.0. They're great engine, just too much for what i'm trying to do.

Ideally, I need an engine that can cruise comfortably on the highway (65-70 mph) get at least 18mpg, tow a small trailer, and be reliable enough that I can take it into the mountains for a week or three and not worry about it puking it's guts all over the ground. and also not weigh a ton. That's why I was leaning towards a 4bt. However I don't want to have to worry about looking over my shoulder for "the man" and getting my truck crushed because of some stupid law.

I appreciate all the good info about the differences between the federal government vs state government laws. But it's just making me lean more towards a built 300. For the cost of a 4bt I could build a nice reliable 300 and have cash left over.

Thanks for the great info and opinions.

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post #14 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-11-2016, 04:37 PM
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Why not just drop a rebuilt and upgraded 302 in? That's fully legal and will probably be the simplest option. The 300 is reliable, for sure, but it's also large, heavy, and can't economically be modified to the power levels you can get out of a 302. The 302 also taps into the enormous universe of Mustang speed parts where the 300 doesn't; more vendors equal better prices whereas the 300s is limited to just a couple expensive vendors. Later 302s are also quite reliable; any quality rebuild of your existing engine or a contemporary 302 is going to last at least 100K miles and a quality rebuild of that late 5.0 in the Explorer will net 250K.

My own personal long term plans include pulling the 302/5.0 out of a 95-01 Explorer with distributorless ignition, getting it rebuilt (and built up) and running it with MegaSquirt. Out of the box those were 215hp, I'm expecting be able to get to ~300 at the rear wheels with mostly bolt ons - 350+ with a blower - and that's without significantly shortening the engine's life.
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post #15 of 26 (permalink) Old 05-11-2016, 04:48 PM
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Also, if you think the 300's going to be a whole lot better on fuel economy, you need to think again, especially if you have an automatic.











The 302 with the AOD gets the best fuel economy of any of the auto-equipped Broncos of 1989. The only reason it doesn't do the same with the M5OD manual is because the 300 trucks got 3.08 or lower gears. If they didn't, the 300 would be screaming its heart (and life) out at highway speeds.
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Good info. I appreciate the work!

I still think that all things considered I'm going to go with the I6. I have a local hookup for a good engine and I think it will be a fun experience. Besides I've spoken to a few people about their real world economy and it seems like if you have an I6 and overdrive you're made in the shade. I'm not going to build this truck to go fast, I just want it to go forever.
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post #17 of 26 (permalink) Old 06-07-2016, 07:47 PM
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It's technically illegal in all 50 states - there are Federal laws against it.

You may not swap in a diesel engine into any vehicle that was not offered in a diesel version when it was new. Even if the diesel would produce fewer emissions products than the engine it replaces. Sentence is max 10 years, $100K max per instance.

As a practical matter, as the EPA guy told me a decade or so back when I was investigating the legality of a diesel swap in my then-Jeep, the EPA isn't going to be running around inspecting cars and they didn't at the time have armed police (the last bit has changed, they have armed cops with high caliber crew served guns now, per their recent RFBs) so unless you were going to get caught by the state at inspection time, they weren't going to be terribly concerned. So, yeah, technically while it is illegal, since Texas isn't going to have an inspector caring about what's under the hood any more you could go ahead and do it - most Texas cops won't know the difference at all or want to be bothered with it. You can drive it all around the state with a reasonable assumption your truck will be left alone.

*HOWEVER.*

You basically will never be able to take your truck into Federal property 'safely.' This means no military bases, no national parks, no Federal reservations (and I'm not talking about the Indian rez kind.). Any place where there's a chance your vehicle will be inspected for security reasons by Feds is a chance you will be busted and your truck will be confiscated - the same for any vehicles operating without cats (in violation of Federal law), etc. Yes, Fed cops and park rangers do look for this sort of thing now. This means (especially) that you cannot drive it into Big Bend National Park. Yes, vehicles *have* been seized and owners charged.

Should your truck be seized but you somehow avoid getting charged, be advised that the Feds may not give your truck back but may instead crush it. That's what happened to these Land Rover Defender diesels that were imported as being gasoline trucks when they were actually diesels. No chance to repair or correct the problem was given, no parts could be saved, they were just crushed.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzBFwFos-o0

That is an official "look at what we did!" video released by US CBP and the EPA.

Short version:
State doesn't care if the truck is out of emissions inspection.
Feds don't care unless the vehicle comes in contact with Federal property or Federal cops. Then they care a *lot*.

I'm not going to tell you not to do it. I'm just going to tell you that it's illegal and that there can be some very real, very significant downsides to it.
Look, I appreciate the information you are trying to tell people and you may very well be right that it is 100% illegal to do a diesel swap in terms of federal law.

But you are using a video of a 2005 Land Rover Defender being passed off as a 1975 Land Rover Defender, modified and fraudulently stated as something it wasn't (25 years old or older) and imported into the United States, getting seized and destroyed as an example of what the feds will do to you if you put a 6BT into an old truck and drive through Yellowstone. The video clearly explains the circumstances of why this vehicle was destroyed. Being a diesel wasn't even mentioned.

This is a fabrication and distortion of facts.

Why the hell would you do this?

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post #18 of 26 (permalink) Old 06-08-2016, 01:15 AM
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Look, I appreciate the information you are trying to tell people and you may very well be right that it is 100% illegal to do a diesel swap in terms of federal law.

But you are using a video of a 2005 Land Rover Defender being passed off as a 1975 Land Rover Defender, modified and fraudulently stated as something it wasn't (25 years old or older) and imported into the United States, getting seized and destroyed as an example of what the feds will do to you if you put a 6BT into an old truck and drive through Yellowstone. The video clearly explains the circumstances of why this vehicle was destroyed. Being a diesel wasn't even mentioned.

This is a fabrication and distortion of facts.

Why the hell would you do this?
No, I'm using it as an example of what the Feds will cheerfully do, worst case scenario. Notice that they are bragging about having destroyed the non-compliant vehicle. The Feds are fully entitled to order your seized vehicle destroyed rather than give you the chance to correct any problems with it.

The point is, the Feds don't have to issue 'fix it' tickets. They can (and will) seize your truck, destroy it, then send you the bill along with a nice fat fine.

As I said in my initial post - I'm not saying people shouldn't convert to diesel. I'm just saying there are potentially serious legal ramifications that someone who is interested in converting should be aware of.
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post #19 of 26 (permalink) Old 06-08-2016, 01:27 AM
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No, I'm using it as an example of what the Feds will cheerfully do, worst case scenario. Notice that they are bragging about having destroyed the non-compliant vehicle. The Feds are fully entitled to order your seized vehicle destroyed rather than give you the chance to correct any problems with it.

The point is, the Feds don't have to issue 'fix it' tickets. They can (and will) seize your truck, destroy it, then send you the bill along with a nice fat fine.

As I said in my initial post - I'm not saying people shouldn't convert to diesel. I'm just saying there are potentially serious legal ramifications that someone who is interested in converting should be aware of.
Of course they are bragging. Most Feds are arrogant meatheads thinking they are doing a service. They follow blindly and just do what they are told.

But the most important part is that you made it sound like the Land Rover was crushed because of it being a diesel. That was the furthest from the truth. That's irresponsible of you.

I still think you are grossly overstating the potential danger in doing a diesel swap.

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post #20 of 26 (permalink) Old 06-08-2016, 08:44 AM
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Me and my park going 4BT F150 laugh heartily at this thread

Good grief
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